Thì quá khứ hoàn thành: Công thức, cách dùng và bài tập

Thì quá khứ hoàn thành (Past perfect tense) là một trong 12 thì tiếng Anh – chủ điểm ngữ pháp căn bản đầu tiên mà bất cứ người học tiếng Anh nào cũng phải “thuộc lòng”.

Trong bài viết dưới đây Trường TCSP Mẫu giáo – Nhà trẻ Hà Nội xin chia sẻ đến các bạn tài liệu Thì quá khứ hoàn thành trong tiếng Anh. Đây là tài liệu giúp các bạn hiểu rõ hơn về: công thức, cách dùng, dấu hiệu nhận biết và bài tập vận dụng cũng như giúp bạn có thể sâu chuỗi kiến thức bài học dễ dàng hơn. Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo nội dung chi tiết tại đây.

I. Định nghĩa thì quá khứ hoàn thành

– Thì quá khứ hoàn thành (Past perfect tense) dùng để diễn tả một hành động xảy ra trước một hành động khác trong quá khứ. Hành động nào xảy ra trước thì dùng thì quá khứ hoàn thành.

II. Công thức thì quá khứ hoàn thành

Câu khẳng định Câu phủ định Câu nghi vấn

S + had + VpII

Ví dụ:

– He had gone out when I came into the house. (Anh ấy đã đi ra ngoài khi tôi vào nhà.)

– They had finished their work right before the deadline last week .(Họ đã hoàn thành công việc của họ ngay trước hạn chót vào tuần trước.

S + hadn’t + VpII

Ví dụ:

– hadn’t = had not

Ví dụ:

– She hadn’t come home when I got there. (Cô ấy vẫn chưa về nhà khi tôi về.)

– They hadn’t finished their lunch when I saw them. (Họ vẫn chưa ăn xong bữa trưa khi trông thấy họ).

Had + S + VpII ?

Trả lời: Yes, S + had.

No, S + hadn’t.

Ví dụ:

Had the film endedwhen you arrived at the cinema? (Bộ phim đã kết thúc khi bạn tới rạp chiếu phim phải không?)

Yes, it had./ No, it hadn’t

III. Dấu hiệu nhận biết thì quá khứ hoàn thành

*Thì Quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn thường đi kèm với các từ sau:

– until then (cho tới khi), by the time (bằng với lúc), prior to that time, before (trước), after (sau), for (được khoảng), as soon as (ngay sau khi), by (bằng khoảng thời gian).

*Trong câu thường có các từ:

– before (trước khi), after (sau khi), when (khi), by the time (bằng tới lúc), by the end of + time in the past … (bằng khoảng + thời gian nào đó ở quá khứ).

IV. Cách dùng thì quá khứ hoàn thành

Cách sử dụng Ví dụ
Diễn tả một hoạt động đã xảy ra và hoàn thành trước một hành động khác trong quá khứ.

– Jane had cooked breakfast when we got up. (Jane đã nấu bữa sáng trước khi chúng tôi thức dậy.)

– The plane had left by the time I arrived at the airpot.(Máy bay đã rời đi trước khi tôi tới sân bay.)

Diễn tả một hành động đã xảy ra và kéo dài tới một thời điểm nhất định trong quá khứ.

– We had had that car for ten years before it broke down. (Chúng tôi đã có cái ô tô đó trong mười năm trước khi nó bị hỏng.)

– By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years. (Trước khi Alex hoàn thành việc học, anh ấy đã ở London được tám năm.)

Diễn tả một hành động xảy ra trước một thời điểm nhất định trong quá khứ.

– She had travelled around the world before 2010. (Cô ấy đã đi vòng quanh thế giới trước năm 2010.)

– He had never played football until last week.(Anh ấy chưa từng bao giờ chơi bóng đá cho tới tuần trước.)

Sử dụng trong câu điều kiện loại 3 để diễn tả điều kiện không có thực trong quá khứ.

– If I had known that, I would have acted differently. (Nếu tôi biết điều đó, tôi đã hành xử khác đi.)

-She would have come to the party if she had been invited. (Cô ấy lẽ ra đã đến bữa tiệc nếu cô ấy được mời.)

Dùng để thể hiện sự thất vọng về sự việc nào đó trong quá khứ. (thường dùng cấu trúc điều ước trong quá khứ.)

– We wished we had purchased the ticket. (Chúng tôi ước là mình đã mua tấm vé.)

– I wished I had told the truth. (Tôi ước là tôi đã nói sự thật.)

V. Bài tập thực hành thì quá khứ hoàn thành

Bài tập thực hành có đáp án

Bài 1:

1- The storm destroyed the tent that we (build) ____________.

2- Liz (not / be) ____________ to New York before 2014.

3- When Johnathan went out to play soccer, he (do / already) ____________ his homework.

4- Kristen ate all of the cake that our mom (make) ____________ .

5- The docter took off the plaster that she (put on) ____________ two weeks before.

6- The waiter brought a drink that I (not / order) ____________ .

7- Kenny could not remember the words we (learn) ____________ three week before.

8- My kids collected coconuts that (fall) ____________ from the tree.

9- (she / phone) ____________ Jackie before she went to see him in Korea?

10- He (not / ride) ____________ a horse before that day.

Bài 2: Cho dạng đúng của động từ trong ngoặc.

1. They (come) …………….. back home after they (finish) ………… their work.

2. She said that she ( meet) ……………. Mr. Bean before.

3. Before he (go) ………………….. to bed, he (read) ………………… a novel.

4. He told me he (not/wear) …………………… such kind of clothes before.

5. When I came to the stadium, the match (start) …………………….

6. Before she (listen) …………….. to music, she (do)…… homework.

7. Last night, Peter (go) ………….. to the supermarket before he (go) ………… home.

Bài 3: Viết lại câu sao cho nghĩa không đổi sử dụng từ gợi ý cho sẵn.

1. David had gone home before we arrived. – After

…………………………………………………

2. We had lunch then we took a look around the shops. – Before

…………………………………………………

3. The light had gone out before we got out of the office. –

When…………………………………………

4. After she had explained everything clearly, we started our work. – By the time

…………………………………………………

5. My father had watered all the plants in the garden by the time my mother came home. –

Before …………………………………………….

ĐÁP ÁN

Bài 1

1- had built

2- had not been

3- had already done

4- had made

5- had put on

6- had not ordered

7- had learned

8- had fallen

9- had she phoned

10- had not ridden

Bài 2:

1. came – had finished

2. had met

3. went – had read

4. hadn’t worn

5. had started

6. listened – had done

7. had gone – went

Bài 3.

1. After David had gone home, we arrived.

2. Before we took a look around the shops, we had had lunch.

3. When we got out of the office, the light had gone out.

4. By the time we started our work, she had explained everything clearly.

5. Before my mother came home, my father had watered all the plants in the garden.

Bài tập tự luyện

Bài 1: Choose the best answer for each sentence

1. I was sure that I _______ the woman before.

a) seen

b) had seen

c) have seen

d) has see

2. Tim wanted to know what _______ to his backpack.

a) have happened

b) happened

c) had happened

d) happens

3. Marcia ______ by the time we got there.

a) left

b) leaves

c) have left

d) had left

4. I realized that I ________ the wrong book from the library.

a) had taken

b) took

c) have taken

d) take

5. Melissa ate the cake that I ______.

a) baked

b) have bake

c) bake

d) had baked

6. The teacher asked why I _______ class early.

a) have left

b) left

c) had left

d) leave

7. What did Andrew say that he __________ with my Cd?

a) had done

b) did

c) have done

d) has done

8. At the party Susan ________ some cake.

a) have ate

b) have eaten

c) has ate

d) has eaten

9. The teacher corrected the composition I ____.

a) have wrote

b) have written

c) had written

d) has written

10. The last time I was there it _________ a very good restaurant.

a) had been

b) have been

c) been

d) be

11. Sam washed the car after he ______it with gas.

a) had filled

b) have filles

c) fills

d) filled

12. Frank left the table after he _______ eating.

a) finishes

b) have finished

c) finish

d) had finished

13. By the time my wife came home, I ______ the laundry

a) do

b) had done

c) did

d) have done

14. I went to work after I _______ dog.

a) had walked

b) walks

c) have walked

d) walks

15. Susan was late. By the time she got to school the class _______ already.

a) have started

b) starts

c) was starting

d)had started

16. We watched TV after our daughter _______ to bed.

a) had gone

b) go

c) have went

d) goes

17. We _____ that car for ten years before we sold it.

a) have

b) did have

c) had

d) had had

18. By the time Maria finished her report, she _______ working on the computer for over three hours.

a) be

b) has

c) had been

d) have been

19. She ______ Victoria once in 1993 before she moved there in 1996.

a) visit

b) have visited

c) had visited

d) visits

20. Ming _____ as a carpenter before he was laid off.

a) works

b) have worked

c) work

d) had worked

Bài 2:

1. The fire ………………………… (already/reach) the roof by the time the firemen arrived.

2. Joe Smith went to prison because he …. . …………. (steal) a lot of money.

3. Helen went to bed after she …………………… (watch) her favourite TV programme.

4. My father bought the new car after he ………………. . (try) it a few times.

5. By the time Sonia got to the party, everyone ……………………. (begin) dancing.

6. Lorenzo ……………………. . (eat) all the ice cream before I opened the fridge.

7. There was a lot of snow outside because it ………………. . (snow) earlier in that day.

8. Beatriz didn’t pass the test because she …………………. . (not study) at all.

9. Look! Somebody …………………… (leave) the windows open.

10. By the time the police arrived, the burglar ………………. . (break)into my neighbour’s house.

11. The girl felt guilty because she …………………. (drink) all the milk.

12. Our flat was robbed because we …………………. (not lock) the front door.

13. My father couldn’t find the money because he ……………. . (hide) it in a drawer.

14. Leonard didn’t have money for the bus because he …………. (forget) to ask his mother.

15. My cousin ………………… (never/visit) a mine until his father took him one day.

16. Her bicycle wasn’t there because a friend ……………. . … (take) it without asking her.

17. Daniel was arrested after he ……. …………… (escape) from prison.

18. When Kathy met Jonathan, he …………………. . (join) the Navy.

19. Before they arrived at the airport, they ……………. . (pay) the taxi driver.

20. His dog …………………. (die) two weeks ago. He was very sad.

Phạm Hồng Thái

Trường THPT Phạm Hồng Thái đạt trường chuẩn Quốc gia năm 2009, Nhà trường nằm trên đường Nguyễn Văn Ngọc, phường Cống Vị, Quận Ba Đình, Thành phố Hà Nội. Với truyền thống 45 năm dạy tốt và học tốt, nhà trường đã đạt được nhiều thành tích, được Thủ tướng Chính phủ, UBND Thành phố Hà Nội, Sở Giáo dục và Đào tạo Hà Nội tặng nhiều bằng khen.

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